Choline

Overview

Choline is another one of the essential B vitamins and plays a role in the functioning in almost every cell in our bodies. It helps the body transport cholesterol out of the liver and also helps to lower blood levels of homocysteine which, is a risk factor to coronary heart disease. Choline is also a precursor for acetylcholine, one of the neurotransmitters involved in memory.


Function

Some studies conducted on animals have shown that extra amounts of choline can enhance brain development and lead to better memory and attention over an entire lifespan. Generally, folic acid and vitamin B6 are recommending to help lower homocysteine levels and the risk of developing heart disease however, studies have shown that formulas that contain choline have achieved better results since it plays a role in some of the chemical reactions that control the homocysteine levels.


Forms Available

Choline Chloride, Choline Bitartrate


Recommended Intake

Infants

  • Up to 6 months: 125 milligrams per day (mg/day)
  • 7 to 12 months: 150 mg/day

 

Children

  • 1 to 3 years old: 200 mg/day
  • 4 to 8 years old: 250 mg/day
  • 9 to 13 years old: 375 mg/day

 

Men

  • 14 years old and older: 550 mg/day

 

Women

  • 14 to 18 years old: 400 mg/day
  • 20 years old and older: 425 mg/day
  • Pregnant: 450 mg/day
  • Lactating: 550 mg/day

Deficiency

Symptoms of choline deficiency have only been seen in humans who have been fed choline deficient diets; symptoms include fatty liver disease and other liver damage. Since choline deficiencies have only been seen in experimental situations this means choline meets one of the requirements to be an essential nutrient.


Sources in the Diet

Some good sources of choline are shellfish, eggs, poultry, tuna, salmon and collard greens.


Recent Studies and Articles

Choline as an essential nutrient

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782876/

Choline during pregnancy

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-07/epr-sss071510.php


Challenges Presented

Physical Characteristics: White crystals, soluble in water

Formulation Notes: No daily value established. AMI Upper Intake ~ 3000mg/day. Can be encapsulated. Raw material is deliquescent. Odor is fishy.


Watson Products

CHOLINE BITARTRATE DC 90% 55LB DRUM


Sources

  1. [0] – http://www.livestrong.com/article/248317-choline-deficiency/
  2. [0] – http://www.livestrong.com/article/337802-recommended-daily-intake-of-choline/
  3. [0] – http://www.livestrong.com/article/110675-choline-pregnancy/
  4. [] – Hendler S., Rorvik D., Fleming T.,et al. Physicians’ Desk Reference for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc.; 2001.
  5. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  6. [] – Nelms, M. Sucher, K. Lacey, K. Roth, S. Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology. 2 ed. New York, NY: Cengage Learning; 2011.
  7. [] – Boyle, Marie A. and Anderson Sara L. Personal Nutrition. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning; 2007.
  8. [] – Challem, J. Choline: Super Brain Booster. Better Nutrition. May 2008. 70 (5), p30-32. http://web.b.ebscohost.com.unh-proxy01.newhaven.edu:2048/scirc/detail/detail?sid=3dfd06a5-ab25-4303-914f-a415576e0a8c%40sessionmgr114&vid=20&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9c2NpcmMtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=sch&AN=31818668. Accessed June 22, 2015.
  9. [0] – http://www.cholineinfo.org/healthcare_professionals/overview.asp