Manganese

Chemical Symbol

Mn


Overview

Manganese is a mineral element that is nutritionally essential but can also be potentially toxic. It helps with antioxidant function, our metabolism, bone development and helps with the wound healing process.


Function

Manganese superoxide dismutase is one of the main antioxidant enzymes within the mitochondria. This enzyme helps catabolize the conversion of any superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide, which can help to reduce any water created from other antioxidant reactions. Many manganese-activated enzymes play important roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and cholesterol. The formation of healthy bone and cartilage also relies on manganese for the synthesis of proteoglycans. In order for wounds to heal properly, collagen fibers need to be produced. Manganese is require to activate prolinase, an enzyme that provides the amino acid proline that is used for the formation of collagen.


Forms Available


Recommended Intake

Age Males (mg/day) Females (mg/day)
0-6 months 0.003 0.003
7-12 months 0.6 0.6
1-3 years 1.2 1.2
4-8 years 1.5 1.5
9-13 years 1.9 1.6
14-18 years 2.2 1.6
Over 19 years 2.3 1.8
Pregnant, all ages 2.0
Lactating, all ages 2.6

Deficiency

The first ever report of a manganese deficiency was in the 1970’s when a man lived on a manganese-free diet for four months. Some of his symptoms included dizziness, bone problems, reduced growth of hair and nails, weakness, hearing problems, weight loss, abnormal gait and skin problems. A deficiency in children could lead to convulsions, paralysis or blindness.


Sources in the Diet

Wheat bran, brown rice, buckwheat, lima beans, cooked carrots, kale, and almonds have manganese in them.


Recent Studies and Articles

Manganese can prevent heart disease

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/255783.php

Manganese sulfate and your health

http://www.preeclampsia.org/the-news/3-newsflash/274-news-about-magnesium-sulfate

Manganese for bone health

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130505073731.htm


Challenges Presented


Watson Products

MANGANESE SULFATE 50% W/ MICRO, 22 LB CTN
MANGANESE SUL. 50% , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON
MANGANESE SULFATE 50% W/ MICRO, 22 LB CTN


Sources

  1. [] – Higdon J., Drake V., An Evidence-based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals. New York, NY: Thieme Publishing Group.; 2012
  2. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  3. [0] – http://djarn.edublogs.org/files/2011/01/periodic-table-2jh1745.gif
  4. [] – Boyle, Marie A. and Anderson Sara L. Personal Nutrition. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning; 2007.