Chemical Symbol



There are about 9mg of molybdenum in the adult body and most is stored in the liver, kidneys, bone and skin.  It is an essential trace mineral for all living things, which allows it to have a significant impact on the health of the ecosystem.


Molybdenum is an important component of enzymes that are responsible for uric acid production, being a waste product of protein metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism as well as iron utilization, and alcohol and sulfite detoxification.

Forms Available

Recommended Intake


  • Up to 12 months: no additional supplements required other than what is received from food and formula


  • 1 to 3 years old: 300 micrograms per day (mcg/day)
  • 4 to 8 years old: 600 mcg/day
  • 9 to 13 years old: 1100 mcg/day


  • 14 to 18 years: 1700 mcg/day


  • Older than 19 years old: 2000 mcg/day


A deficiency in molybdenum is very rare, especially for healthy individuals.  A deficiency is most likely to be observed in patients on a long-term tube or intravenous feeding, or a rare genetic condition where the body cannot use molybdenum.  Symptoms include rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, headaches, nausea and vomiting.  Cancer may develop from marginal molybdenum deficiency; this has primarily been seen in China and Japan where the soil is low in molybdenum and often stomach and esophageal cancers are diagnosed.

Sources in the Diet

Molybdenum is in lima beans, oats, raisin bran, eggs, spinach, cabbage, chicken, milk, bean sprouts, cheese, and pineapple.

Recent Studies and Articles

Deficiency in molybdenum

Molybdenum toxicity

Challenges Presented

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