Niacin

Overview

Niacin or vitamin B3 is a water soluble white powder and is more resistant to destruction than other complex B vitamins. The body can convert the amino acid tryptophan into niacin. Like most of the B vitamins, niacin is essential for the manufacture of enzymes that breakdown of carbohydrates, fats and proteins that provide our tissues and metabolism with energy.


Function

Metabolism: Niacin is essential for the manufacture of enzymes called NAD and NADP that provide cells with energy through tissue respiration and carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Niacin is essential for the health of our skin tongue and digestive tract tissues and the formation of red blood cells. Niacin can be used to help reduce LDL (low density lipoproteins), triglyceride levels and increase HDL (high density lipoproteins).

Hormones: Niacin is essential for the synthesis of various hormones including sex hormones, cortisone, thyroxin and insulin. Nicotinic acid is part of the glucose tolerance factor, which is a compound that enhances our body’s response to insulin.

The Nervous System: Niacin helps to keep our brain and nervous system functioning properly. It can also be given to those suffering from depression, anxiety, mania, dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.


Forms Available

Niacin and Niacinamide


Recommended Intake

Infants

  • Up to 6 months old: 5 milligrams/day (mg/day)
  • 6 months to 1 year old: 6 mg/day

 

Children

  • 1 to 3 years old: 9 mg/day
  • 4 to 6 years old: 12 mg/day
  • 7 to 10 years old: 13 mg/day

 

Males

  • 11 to 14 years old: 17 mg/day
  • 15 to 18 years old: 20 mg/day
  • 19 to 50 years old: 19 mg/day
  • 51 years old and older: 15 mg/day

Females

  • 11 to 50 years old: 15 mg/day
  • 51 years old and older: 13 mg/day

 

Pregnant

  • 17 mg/day

 

Lactating

  • 20 mg/day

 

These values may vary depend on weight, height, health, and any medical conditions.


Deficiency

Severe niacin deficiency causes the disease called pellagra. Symptoms of this disease include diarrhea, dementia and dermatitis. The most characteristic symptom being a reddish skin rash of the face, hands and feet which becomes dark and rough when exposed to sunlight. Some other symptoms may include fatigue, loss of appetite, lethargy, a sore mouth and tongue, inflamed membranes in the intestinal tract and diarrhea. Some other nutrients like thiamin and riboflavin may also be a cause of pellagra.


Sources in the Diet

Most niacin food is in the form of NAD and NADP, the riches sources being chicken, fish, cooked dried beans, peas, peanuts, beef and whole grain wheat products.


Recent Studies and Articles

Niacin and cholesterol control

http://health.clevelandclinic.org/2013/05/can-niacin-be-harmful-to-control-cholesterol/

Niacin and heart disease

http://www.umm.edu/heart/pdf/nejm_niacin_ezetimibe.pdf


Challenges Presented

Physical Characteristics: White powder, readily soluble in water

Formulation Notes: Can be agglomerated or coated. Most stable B vitamin. Higher use rate results in magnification of poor flavor.


Watson Products

NIACINAMIDE 33.3%ACT , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON
NIACINAMIDE ASCORBATE, DP-21 40LBS CARTON
NIACINAMIDE ASCORBATE FCC/PWR, DP-21 40LBS CARTON
NIACMD 33.3% PALM , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON
NIACINAMIDE 35% SOY/CN , 25LB (11.36 KG) CARTON
NIACINAMIDE & ASCORBIC ACID 40:60 , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
NIACINAMIDE ASC25:75 , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON


Sources

  1. [] – Boyle, Marie A. and Anderson Sara L. Personal Nutrition. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning; 2007.
  2. [] – Nelms, M. Sucher, K. Lacey, K. Roth, S. Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology. 2 ed. New York, NY: Cengage Learning; 2011.
  3. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  4. [] – Dole Nutrition Institute. The Dole Nutrition Handbook. Printed in the United States of America; Rodale Inc. 2010.
  5. [0] – Recommended Dietary Allowances
  6. [0] – http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682518.html