Pantothenic Acid

Overview

Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, is an essential vitamin for all forms of life. It can be found within our cells in the form of coenzyme A (CoA) and is vital in releasing energy from the food we eat. Research has shown that pantothenic acid appears to be involved in some aspects of gene expression as well.


Function

Pantothenic acid is used in the manufacture of compound called coenzyme A, this enzyme is essential for the synthesis of essential fats, cholesterol and some steroids. It is used for the production of some neurotransmitters like acetylcholine and is needed for normal function of our nervous system as well as the synthesis of antibodies also requires the aid of pantothenic acid. Our adrenal glands, located in the kidneys, requires the use of pantothenic acid to produce some of its hormones like cortisone. The production of hemoglobin requires pantothenic acid and it can be given to patients who have hypertension, depression or irritability.


Forms Available

d-Calcium Pantothenate (Activity 92%)


Recommended Intake

Infants

  • Up to 6 months old: 1.7 milligrams per day (mg/day)
  • 7 to 12 months old: 1.8 mg/day

 

Children

  • 1 to 3 years old: 2.0 mg/day
  • 4 to 8 years old: 3.0 mg/day
  • 9 to 13 years old: 4.0 mg/day

Adolescents and Adults

  • 14 to 18 years old: 5.0 mg/day
  • 19 years old and older: 5.0 mg/day

 

Women

  • Pregnancy: 6 mg/day
  • Lactating: 7.0 mg/day

Deficiency

A deficiency of pantothenic acid has not yet been discovered naturally in a human, however it has been induced under experimental conditions where it caused the adrenal glands to shrink. The shrinkage of the adrenal glands lead to symptoms of fatigue, headaches, depression, sleep disturbances, personality changes, nausea and abdominal distress. However, in more recent studies participants were a given pantothenic acid free diet and the participants did not develop any clinical signs of deficiency.


Sources in the Diet

Some good sources of pantothenic acid include yeast, eggs, bran, peanuts, peas, meat, milk poultry and sweet potatoes. Most fruits and vegetables contain a small amount of pantothenic acid.


Recent Studies and Articles

Pantothenic acid as a significant factor in treating acne

http://www.highonhealth.org/how-to-cure-acne-with-b-vitamins/

Health benefits of royal jelly; contains pantothenic acid

http://www.naturalnews.com/033102_royal_jelly_brain_food.html


Challenges Presented

Physical Characteristics: White powder, readily soluble in water

Formulation Notes: Can be agglomerated or coated. Moderately stable. Not stable in the presence of some minerals, particularly magnesium.


Watson Products

B12 CYAN 1.0% ON DCP , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON


Sources

  1. [] – Boyle, Marie A. and Anderson Sara L. Personal Nutrition. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning; 2007.
  2. [] – Nelms, M. Sucher, K. Lacey, K. Roth, S. Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology. 2 ed. New York, NY: Cengage Learning; 2011.
  3. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  4. [] – Dole Nutrition Institute. The Dole Nutrition Handbook. Printed in the United States of America; Rodale Inc. 2010.
  5. [] – Higdon J., Drake V., An Evidence-based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals. New York, NY: Thieme Publishing Group.; 2012.
  6. [] – Hendler S., Rorvik D., Fleming T.,et al. Physicians’ Desk Reference for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc.; 2001.
  7. [0] – http://www.medicinenet.com/hemoglobin/article.htm
  8. [0] – http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/853.html