Riboflavin

Overview

Also known as B2, riboflavin was the second B vitamin discovered. In its purest form it is a yellow-orange, water soluble compound. It is part of a two coenzyme known as Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), which are essential for tissue respiration and the generation of energy from the metabolism. Supplementation of this vitamin can help reduce the frequency or severity of migraines as well.


Function

Metabolism

Riboflavin is essential for tissue respiration and the generation of energy from the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and fats. It is vital for the normal production, growth, repair and development of body tissues including skin, hair, nails and the immune system.

 

Brain and Nerve Function

In order for nerves to properly develop and for brain neurotransmitters to metabolize, riboflavin is required.

 

Cellular Involvement

Blood cells use riboflavin for development and to metabolize iron.

 

Hormones and Glands

The adrenal glands cannot function without riboflavin and various hormones need riboflavin in order to be produced and regulated.

 

Oxidation-Reductions Reactions

The flavocoenzymes play a role in oxidation-reduction reactions (redox reactions) which are processes that transfer electrons and create energy.  Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins create this energy.

 


Forms Available


Recommended Intake

Infants

  • Up to 6 months old: 0.3 milligrams per day (mg/day)
  • 7-12 months old: 0.4 mg/day

These are based off of Adequate Intake (AI) values.

 

Children

  • 1-3 years old: 0.5 mg/day
  • 4-8 years old: 0.6 mg/day
  • 9-13 years old: 0.9 mg/day

Adolescents and Adults

  • Males 14 years old and older: 1.3 mg/day
  • Females 14 years old and older: 1.0 mg/day
  • Females 19 years old and older: 1.1 mg/day

 

The exact amount required daily depends on gender, age, health, and other medical conditions.

 


Deficiency

A severe deficiency in riboflavin is rare and often accompanies other B vitamin deficiencies. Some symptoms can include red, swollen, cracked lips, mouth and tongue; aversion to bright light; loss of appetite; weakness; fatigue; depression; anemia; loss of vision and dermatitis. Deficiencies in riboflavin may be associated with an increase to throat and esophageal cancers. Those who are at lactose intolerant are at risk for riboflavin deficiencies as well.


Sources in the Diet

The richest sources of riboflavin include organic meats, milk, yeast, cheese, fish and dark leafy green vegetables. For example; lamb, salmon, spinach, milk, mackerel, veal, eggs and feta milk are good sources of riboflavin.


Recent Studies and Articles

Riboflavin and cyonide poisoning study

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-04-zebrafish-vitamin-b2-riboflavin-antidote.html

Riboflavin and migraines

http://bastyrcenter.org


Challenges Presented


Watson Products

B2 RIBO 33.3% ACTIVE , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON
RIBOFLAVIN 95% D.C. , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON
RIBOFLAVIN 25% , 15.5 GAL DRUM 25KG/55LBS
RIBOFLVN 950DC CBS^^ , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON
RIBO 33.3% PALM , 22LB (10 KG.) CARTON
RIBOFLAVIN 35%SOY/CN , 22 LB (10 KG.) CARTON
RIBOFLAVIN 33.3% ACTIVE, W/ MICRO, 22 LB CTN


Sources

  1. [] – Boyle, Marie A. and Anderson Sara L. Personal Nutrition. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning; 2007.
  2. [] – Nelms, M. Sucher, K. Lacey, K. Roth, S. Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology. 2 ed. New York, NY: Cengage Learning; 2011.
  3. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  4. [] – Dole Nutrition Institute. The Dole Nutrition Handbook. Printed in the United States of America; Rodale Inc. 2010.
  5. [0] – http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002411.htm