Thiamin

Overview

Thiamin was the first B vitamin to be discovered in 1926 when two Dutch scientists isolated pure thiamin, which was the anti-beriberi agent in rice. It helps to support our metabolism and regulate the flow of electrolytes in and out of muscle nerve cells. Since thiamin is used in our muscles and nerve cells we need to increase our intake during strenuous exertion, if you are pregnant, when you have a fever, and during adolescent growth.


Function

Absorption and Metabolism: Thiamin is a part of an enzyme called thiamin pyrophosphate, which is essential for almost all of the cellular reactions in the body. It is responsible for normal development, growth, reproduction, healthy skin and hair, blood production and immune function. It is also necessary for the metabolism of alcohol.

Brain and nerve function: Thiamin is particularly important for proper nerve functioning. It is necessary for the synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that effect multiple functions within the brain, and also maintains muscle tone of the stomach and the heart. Supplementing thiamin can be used to help treat various psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, memory loss and to treat psychosis.


Forms Available


Recommended Intake

Infants

  • Up to 6 months old: 0.2 milligrams per day (mg/day)
  • 7-12 months old:  0.3 mg/day

These fall under Adequate Intake (AI) values

 

Children

  • 1-3 years old: 0.5 mg/day
  • 4-8 years old: 0.6 mg/day
  • 9-13 years old: 0.9 mg/day

 

Adolescents and Adults

  • Males 14 years old and older: 1.2 mg/day
  • Females 14-18 years old: 1.0 mg/day
  • Females 19 years old and older: 1.1 mg/day

Deficiency

Having a thiamin deficiency is rare in developed countries because most of our grains are fortified with this vitamin however, symptoms of this deficiency are still prevalent in countries who’s diet is white rice based. Those who are at risk for this deficiency are those who stressed, workout heavily, are alcoholics, pregnant, those who are on or partake in fad diets, and people suffering from malaborptive diseases. A severe deficiency in thiamin causes beriberi, multiple symptoms than can affect the cardiovascular system (wet beriberi) or the nervous system (dry beriberi).


Sources in the Diet

Thiamin is found in the germ and bran of wheat and in the outer covering of rice grains, so refining these grains removes much of the thiamin. Some good sources of thiamin come from pork, oats, wheat germ, pecans, pistachios, all bran, kidney beans and green peas.


Recent Studies and Articles

Thiamin deficiency case study

http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/collection/detail.asp?case_id=171&id=171

Thiamin and speech abilities

http://www.stuttering.com/research.html


Challenges Presented


Watson Products

B1 THIAMINE 33.%ACT , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON
THIAMIN HCL 97% , 21.5 GAL DRUM 25KG/55LBS
THIAMINE 35% SOY/CN , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
THIAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE 33.3%, 25LB CTN


Sources

  1. [0] – The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements, and Herbs
  2. [] – Boyle, Marie A. and Anderson Sara L. Personal Nutrition. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning; 2007.
  3. [] – Nelms, M. Sucher, K. Lacey, K. Roth, S. Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology. 2 ed. New York, NY: Cengage Learning; 2011.
  4. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  5. [] – Dole Nutrition Institute. The Dole Nutrition Handbook. Printed in the United States of America; Rodale Inc. 2010.
  6. [0] – http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002401.htm
  7. [0] – An Evidence-based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals