Vitamin C

Overview

The deficiency for Vitamin C was not recognized until the 16th century when sailors began developing scurvy while on their voyages. Humans cannot produce vitamin C on their own, they must obtain it from an outside source. Vitamin C helps within the immune system, in collagen and connective tissue, has antioxidant properties as well as a few other functions. Some other benefits of vitamin C include reducing hypertension, reduce pain of angina, improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetic vascular damage. In its pure form vitamin C is known as ascorbic acid.


Function

Collagen and connective tissues: The main role of vitamin C is in the manufacturing of collagen, this protein forms the basis of connective tissues, is the most abundant tissue in the body and acts as a cementing substance between cells. These fibers help support and protect blood vessels, bones, joints, organs and muscles, and forms a sizable proportion of skin, tendons, ligaments and teen and bones. These collagen fibers also help create a protective barrier against infection and disease, and promotes healing of wounds, fractures and bruises.

Immune system: Vitamin C is crucial to immune functioning, it is involved in antibody production and white blood cell function and activity. Some other infections include the production of antiviral and anticancer substances. Taking vitamin C has been known to shorten the length of the common cold or the flu and help to prevent infections. Vitamin C requirements are raised when our immune systems are under stress.

Antioxidant properties: Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin and antioxidant, which plays a vital role in protecting against oxidative damage. It neutralizes potentially any harmful reactions in the water parts of the body, such as the blood and fluids inside and around the cells. Vitamin C can also help protect LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol against free radical (highly reactive oxygen fragments created by normal processes within the cell) damage and helps to protect against cancer, the effects of aging, heart disease and an array of other health problems. Along with its antioxidant properties vitamin C helps to restore vitamin E to its active form.

Hormones and the Nervous System: Vitamin C is important in the production of adrenal hormone, found in the adrenal gland. It also has a role in the manufacture of neurotransmitters. It is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin and tyrosine to either dopamine or adrenaline. Vitamin C has also been used to help treat those with depression.


Forms Available

Ascorbic Acid (Activity 100%), Sodium Ascorbate (Activity 89%)


Recommended Intake

Infants

  • Up to 6 months: 40 milligrams (mg)
  • 7 to 12 months: 50 mg

 

Children

  • 1 to 3 years old: 15 mg
  • 4 to 8 years old: 25 mg
  • 9 to 13 years old: 45 mg

 

Adolescents and Adults

  • 14 to 18 year old males: 75 mg
  • 14 to 18 year old females: 65 mg
  • 19 years old and older males: 90 mg
  • 19 years and older females: 75 mg

 

Females

  • Pregnant teens: 80 mg
  • Pregnant women: 85 mg
  • Lactating teens: 115 mg
  • Lactating women: 120 mg

 

Smokers must add 35 mg to their recommended value of vitamin C.


Deficiency

A lack of vitamin C eventually leads to scurvy. The symptoms are mainly caused by poorly formed collagen and include a breaking of a small blood vessel, the reddening and bleeding of gums, loose teeth, joint pains, dry scaly skin and blood vessel damage. Some other symptoms can include general weakness, fluid retention, depression and anemia. Some more serious symptoms can also include slower wound healing, increased susceptibility to infections, male infertility and increased genetic damage to sperm cells, which can lead to birth defects.


Sources in the Diet

Vitamin C is mostly found in citrus fruits and vegetables for example it can be found in raw red peppers, guavas, orange juice, papaya, lemons, limes, strawberries, kiwi, oranges, broccoli, kale and many more. Although it is abundant in fruits and vegetables it can be easily lost during storage and cooking if they have not been stored or prepared properly. Fruits and vegetables can also lose vitamin C by being sliced and having large surface area exposed to heat and light.


Recent Studies and Articles

Vitamin C and the common cold

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15495002

Vitamin C and strokes

http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-500368_162-3694740.html

Vitamin C, heart disease, and diabetes

http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2008/11/12_vitaminc.shtml


Challenges Presented

Physical Characteristics: White powder, readily soluble in water

Formulation Notes: Can be coated to prevent reactivity and aid stability.   Scavenges oxygen in solution. Unstable in solutions.


Watson Products

C ASCOR.ACID 97.5% , 50 LB IPBAG
ASCORBIC ACID 50% , DP-21 40LBS CARTON
C ASCORBIC ACID 90%ENCAP, 100LB,21.5 GAL L.P. DRUM
ASCORBIC ACID 95% DC , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
!!ASCORB ACID 90% DC , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
C ASCOR AC 97% DC , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
ASCORBIC ACID 70%CTD , DP-21 40LBS CARTON
ASCORBIC ACID 97.5% EC,50LB CTN
ASCORBIC DC C 97S , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
ASCORBIC ACID W/ROSEHIP, DP-21 50LBS CARTON
ASCORBIC-SOD.ASC 50% , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
C ASCORBIC 50% PALM , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
ASCORB.ACID 96% HPMC , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
ASCORBIC ACID 50% STEARIC/CARNUABA, 44LB CARTON
ASCORBIC ACID 95%, PERRIGO, 110LB DRUM
ASCORBIC ACID 97%, PERRIGO, 44LB CTN
ASCORBIC ACID 97% IMP.COMP, PERRIGO, 110 LB DRUM
ASCORBIC ACID 95% AMPAK, 44 LB CTN
ASCORBIC ACID 97% WITH MICROS, 44 LB CTN
ASCORBIC ACID 97% (NEGPF), PERRIGO, 110 LB DRUM
ASCORBIC ACID 97% (ZIBO), PERRIGO, 110 LB DRUM
ASCORBIC ACID 97% (WEISHENG), PERRIGO, 110 LB DRUM
ASCORBIC ACID 75% ON HYDROGENATED PALM OIL, 25 LB CTN
ASCORBIC ACID 97%
^^ASCORBITABS 30 , 5000/DP12 CARTON
ASCORBITB 60 2400/CT , DP12 CARTON
ASCORBITABS 120 2000 , TABLET JAR 4/CARTON
ASCORBIC ACID 25% , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
ASCORBIC ACID 60PPM , 16X5X29 MWPB PLAIN 50 LB
ASCORBIC ACID AFS , 16X6.5X30 MWPB PRT. 50LB.
ASCORB.PCK 5G/2400/C , DP21,PAKS


Sources

  1. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  2. [] – Nelms, M. Sucher, K. Lacey, K. Roth, S. Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology. 2 ed. New York, NY: Cengage Learning; 2011.
  3. [] – Boyle, Marie A. and Anderson Sara L. Personal Nutrition. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning; 2007.
  4. [] – Dole Nutrition Institute. The Dole Nutrition Handbook. Printed in the United States of America; Rodale Inc. 2010.
  5. [0] – http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-QuickFacts/