Zinc

Chemical Symbol

Zn


Overview

Zinc is an essential trace mineral found in the body that is used for multiple health roles. It was dubbed essential in 1934 when scientist found it in virtually every tissue and tissue fluid in the body. The roles of zinc include immunity, because of its antioxidant properties; brain development; and reproduction. Supplementation of zinc may improve glucose tolerance, lower risk for some eye disease, reduce some symptoms of the common cold and possibly improve some behavioral disorders.


Function

Zinc has many functions in the body, it is used to make copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is an antioxidant found in our bodies. Zinc also works to help prevent free radical damage from UV light and cigarette smoke. Taking zinc supplements has been shown to help shorten the length of the common cold and strengthen the immune system. It has shown that it aids in lowering blood glucose levels as well as help prevent diabetes. Zinc has also been found in many acne medications to help treat and lower the prevalence of acne.


Forms Available

Zinc supplements come in a variety of different forms, there is gluconate, picolinate, citrate and sulfate.


Recommended Intake

Infants

  • Up to 6 months: 2 milligrams per day (mg/day)
  • 7 to 12 months: 3 mg/day

 

Children and Adolescents

  • 1 to 3 years old: 3 mg/day
  • 4 to 8 years old: 5 mg/day
  • 9 to 13 years old: 8 mg/day

 

Men

  • 14 years old and older : 11 mg/day

 

Women

  • 14 to 18 years old: 9 mg/day
  • 19 years old and older: 8 mg/day
  • Pregnant teens: 12 mg/day
  • Pregnant women: 11 mg/day
  • Lactating teens: 13 mg/day
  • Lactating women: 12 mg/day

Deficiency

Deficiencies in zinc include eczema, hair loss, mental apathy, defects in the reproductive organs, delay in sexual maturation, menstrual irregularities and a decreased growth rate in mental development. Some diseases and disorders like alcohol liver disease, chronic infections, viral hepatitis, diabetes and some kidney disorders can require increased amounts of zinc because of an increased risk of deficiency. Some other groups like athletes may suffer from deficiency as well. Studies have been done on the effect of alcohol consumption with a zinc deficiency and has showed impaired heart contractions as well as a reduction in the plasma levels of vitamins A, E and beta carotene.


Sources in the Diet

Some common sources of zinc are oysters, crab meat, lobster, salmon, veal, cashews, sunflower seeds, lentils and chickpeas.


Recent Studies and Articles

Zinc and the common cold

http://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/news/20110215/zinc-may-prevent-and-shorten-colds

Zinc and diarrhea

http://www.zinc.org/case_studies_documents/zinc_advocacy_USAID.pdf

The seriousness of a zinc deficiency

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121001141003.htm


Challenges Presented


Watson Products

ZINC OXIDE 50% COATD , DP-21,22 LB (10 KG)CARTON
ZN OXIDE 50% SOY/CN , 44 LB (20 KG.) CARTON
ZINC OXIDE 50%, 110 LB DRUM
Zinc Oxide 50% Palm


Sources

  1. [0] – The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements, and Herbs
  2. [0] – An Evidence-based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals
  3. [0] – http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-QuickFacts/
  4. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  5. [] – Nelms, M. Sucher, K. Lacey, K. Roth, S. Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology. 2 ed. New York, NY: Cengage Learning; 2011.
  6. [] – Challem, J. Think Zinc for Health. Better Nutrition. October 2008. Iss 10. P 26 – 27. http://web.b.ebscohost.com.unh-proxy01.newhaven.edu:2048/scirc/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=edf01881-aefb-4238-beaa-4c23f25e60a3%40sessionmgr115&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9c2NpcmMtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=sch&AN=34597628. Accessed June 17, 2015.
  7. [] – Cichoke, A. The Unsung Antioxidant: Zinc. Total Health. December 1993. 15 (6), p 18. http://web.b.ebscohost.com.unh-proxy01.newhaven.edu:2048/scirc/detail/detail?vid=6&sid=edf01881-aefb-4238-beaa-4c23f25e60a3%40sessionmgr115&hid=101&bdata=JnNpdGU9c2NpcmMtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=sch&AN=9403085005. Accessed June 17, 2015.
  8. [] – Reavley N. The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.; 1998.
  9. [0] – http://djarn.edublogs.org/files/2011/01/periodic-table-2jh1745.gif